Eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar to Saldanha Bay, South Africa.
Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Western Atlantic: Cape Cod, USA to Argentina. Bahamas, Antilles, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coast.
Schools in coastal waters from inshore to edge of shelf. Prefers clear saline water with a minimum temperature below 24°C.
Juveniles tend to stay in nursery areas, but on maturity rejoin adult stocks offshore. Strongly migratory, often rising to surface at night and dispersing.
Feeds mainly on zooplankton, especially copepods. Juveniles take phytoplankton.
Breeds perhaps throughout the year, but with distinct peaks.
In some areas there are two main spawning periods. Marketed fresh or canned.
Trematode found in intestinal tract.
Fisheries: highly commercial; bait: usually
Alosa senegalensis Bennett, 1831
Clupanodon pseudohispanica (Poey, 1860)
Clupea allecia Rafinesque, 1810
Clupea aurovittata Swainson, 1838
Clupea caeruleovittata Richardson, 1846
Clupea venulosa Steinitz, 1927
Meletta mediterranea Valenciennes, 1847
Sardinella anchovia Valenciennes, 1847
Sardinella aurita mediterranea (Valenciennes, 1847)
Sardinella aurita terrasae Lozano-Rey, 1950
Sardinella euxina Antipa, 1906
Sardinella pinnula Bean, 1912
Sardinia pseudohispanica Poey, 1860